Hackberry – Celtis occidentalis

Hackberry – Celtis occidentalis
Family Ulmaceae – Zelkova, Hackberry, Elm

Hackberry is one of our largest and most-highly valued shade trees in the U.S. 

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Hackberry fruit
Hackberry fruit
Hackberry grows naturally in moist bottomland soil but will grow rapidly in a variety of soil types from moist, fertile soils to hot, dry, rocky locations in the full sun. Hackberry is tolerant of highly alkaline soil whereas Sugarberry is not. It is wind, drought, salt and pollution tolerant once established and is considered a moderately tough, urban-tolerant tree. Skilled pruning is required several times during the first 15 years of life to prevent formation of weak branch crotches and weak multiple trunks.
Hackberry Tree
This Morton Arboretum Hackberry is 61 years old, grown from seed.
Hackberry bark
Hackberry's distinctive "lumpy" bark
It was extensively used in street plantings in parts of Texas and in other cities as it tolerates most soils except extremely alkaline (pH > 8), and grows in sun or partial shade but branches may break out from the trunk if proper pruning and training is not conducted early in the life of the tree. Even slight injury to the trunk and branches can initiate extensive decay inside the tree. If you use this tree, locate it where it will be protected from mechanical injury. Best for low-use areas such as along the edge of woods or in an open lawn, not for along streets. The tree is very susceptible to damage in an ice storm.

Relished by birds and other wildlife, hackberry fruits change from green to red to purple, and can stain concrete walkways.

Hackberry foliage
Hackberry foliage and fruit

Metallic Wood-boring Beetle
This Metallic Wood-boring Beetle's host plant is Hackberry. Agrilus lecontei


  1. Edward F. Gilman and Dennis G. Watson, Common Hackberry, USDA Forest Service Fact
  2. NATIONAL AUDUBON SOCIETY, Field Guide to North American Trees–E: Eastern Region
Tree Encyclopedia / North American Insects & Spiders is dedicated to providing scientific and educational resources for our users through use of large images and macro photographs of flora and fauna.

Family Ulmaceae – Zelkovas, Hackberries and Elms
There are about 200 species of trees and shrubs in Ulmaceae. Elms fell victim to Dutch Elm disease during the 1950s; until that time, they were the premier shade tree along the streets of our American towns and cities. The Morton Arboretum in past years has bred and marketed five new elm varieties resistant to Dutch elm disease.
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